the use and fate of pesticides in vegetable based agro ecosystems in ghana
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The Use and Fate of Pesticides in Vegetable-based Agro-ecosystems in Ghana reviews current knowledge on pesticides use in vegetable farming in Ghana and establishes the fate of pesticides in situ in tropical vegetable-based agro-ecosystems as well as their environmental and public health impacts on selected population groups. A field survey showed that vegetable farmers often spray pesticides on prophylactic basis due to lack of information. Although some farmers may be aware of pesticide hazards, adequate protection is hardly taken to minimize risks. About 70% of exposed farmers had a reduction of 30% or more in whole blood acetylcholinesterase activity. About 95% of the farmers interviewed reported symptoms attributable to pesticide exposure. Water, waterbed sediment, and vegetable crops were checked for residues of the pesticides monitored on the farmers’ fields. Residues detected in water and waterbed sediment indicated that these have come from runoff from vegetable fields and that the measured levels were transient. Pesticide residue levels detected in five vegetable crop types (tomato, cabbage, pepper, onion, and eggplants) were correlated to the minimal risk levels (MRLs) set by the United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Mean intakes of residues by 22- to 75-year old adult farmers were found to be low and did not seem to be associated with health risk. Data on persistent pesticide residues in farmers’ breast milk and blood serum indicated the presence of DDTs, dieldrin, HCB, and HCHs. When daily intakes of DDTs and HCHs to infants through breastfeeding were estimated, some farmers accumulated these compounds in breast milk above the threshold for adverse effects, which raise concerns on children health. Evidence was found for persistence of isomers of endosulfan and its sulfate metabolite in tomato cropped soil and plant tissues. However, the residue concentration in tomato fruits decreased to a level below the Codex MRL given a two-week pre-harvest interval during which no application of the chemical is done. The publication concludes that successful action to reduce the negative impact of pesticides requires sustained, low cost, and well-targeted training interventions. Students and scientists in the fields of environmental chemistry and/or science, farmers, agricultural extension officers and environmental and health regulatory agencies will find this book very useful.
This book investigates pesticide compliance in China in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of compliance and offers some feasible and adaptable suggestions for enhancing the effectiveness of this compliance. It discusses the weak implementation of Chinese laws and rules and emphasizes the necessity and importance of a compliance perspective in China that focuses on why laws are obeyed or broken. It examines how vegetable farmers’ perceptions of amoral calculation affect their pesticide compliance behavior and analyzes how the legitimacy of law is related to compliance to better explain how all the variables interact to shape compliance. It discusses both qualitative and quantitative methods, and uses a large-N qualitative approach, which allows for systematic analysis and in-depth exploration. This book will help readers to understand compliance in developing China by adopting and developing compliance theories which are broadly developed in the West.
The coastal tropics comprise some of the most sensitive and yet the most understudied ecosystems in the world. Coastal plains and river valleys are also home to agriculture on a vast scale, and it is not surprising to find that streams and rivers receive the majority of agricultural runoff, carrying the residues of insecticides, fungicides and other pesticides into estuaries and coastal zones. There is a growing awareness of the urgent need to develop strategies to help productive, healthy and economically viable agriculture to coexist with natural resources. Pesticide Residues in Tropical Coastal Ecosystems brings together toxicology experts from around the world to assess pesticide burdens in many of the major food-producing tropical countries. It provides a unique set of case studies, chronicling pesticide usage and its ecotoxicological impact in coastal regions. A practical guide to recent research findings and applications, it is essential reading for environmental professionals, ecotoxicologists, marine chemists and agrochemists.
The edited book Pesticides - Toxic Aspects contains an overview of attractive researchers of pesticide toxicology that covers the hazardous effects of common chemical pesticide agents employed every day in our agricultural practices. The combination of experimental and theoretical pesticide investigations of current interest will make this book of significance to researchers, scientists, engineers, and graduate students who make use of those different investigations to understand the toxic aspects of pesticides. We hope that this book will continue to meet the expectations and needs of all interested in different aspects of pesticide toxicity.
Structure and Function in Agroecosystem Design and Management presents an advanced discussion of the need to design agricultural systems that 1) increase reliance on biological interactions in agroecosystems as a means of decreasing dependence on the use of large quantities of agrochemicals and the consumption of fossil fuel energy and 2) continue to produce optimal crop yields. Written by international experts, this book discusses biological interactions, matter circulation, and disturbance operating within the agroecosystems in question. The book covers matter cycling and focuses on reducing practices that require the consumption of large quantities of agrochemicals and fossil fuels. The editors then explore the effects of environmental changes and how they will change the management of the next generation of agroecosystems. Is it possible to replace current technologies based on fossil energy with proper interactions operating between crops, livestock, and other organisms to enhance production? If the answer is yes, then modern agriculture can be transformed into an integrated system in which the use of complex biotic interactions is the key technology. Structure and Function in Agroecosystem Design and Management focuses on how can work when designed according to sound ecological practices, and provides the foundation to manage them in an ecologically efficient manner.
Soil is an irreplaceable resource that sustains life on the planet, challenged by food and energy demands of an increasing population. Therefore, soil contamination constitutes a critical issue to be addressed if we are to secure the life quality of present and future generations. Integrated efforts from researchers and policy makers are required to develop sound risk assessment procedures, remediation strategies and sustainable soil management policies. Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination provides a wide depiction of current research in soil contamination and risk assessment, encompassing reviews and case studies on soil pollution by heavy metals and organic pollutants. The book introduces several innovative approaches for soil remediation and risk assessment, including advances in phytoremediation and implementation of metabolomics in soil sciences.
A result of important bilateral scientific agreements between the U.S. and the Soviet Union on the fate of chemicals and pesticides in the environment. Written by experts in both countries, it familiarizes the reader with recent state-of-the-art research being conducted in the areas of agricultural management and water pollution control. A number of models are provided to give the reader a concise grasp of exposure and ecological risk assessments involving these pollutants. Focuses on the necessity to improve our deteriorating standards of public health, environmental science and technology with a total systems approach through the pooled talents of scientists and engineers.
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|Author||: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations|
|Genre||: Technology & Engineering|
|File Download||: 156|
|Format||: PDF, EPUB, And Audiobooks|
This document presents key messages and the state-of-the-art of soil pollution, its implications on food safety and human health. It aims to set the basis for further discussion during the forthcoming Global Symposium on Soil Pollution (GSOP18), to be held at FAO HQ from May 2nd to 4th 2018. The publication has been reviewed by the Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soil (ITPS) and contributing authors. It addresses scientific evidences on soil pollution and highlights the need to assess the extent of soil pollution globally in order to achieve food safety and sustainable development. This is linked to FAO’s strategic objectives, especially SO1, SO2, SO4 and SO5 because of the crucial role of soils to ensure effective nutrient cycling to produce nutritious and safe food, reduce atmospheric CO2 and N2O concentrations and thus mitigate climate change, develop sustainable soil management practices that enhance agricultural resilience to extreme climate events by reducing soil degradation processes. This document will be a reference material for those interested in learning more about sources and effects of soil pollution.