Although chemical pesticides safeguard crops and improve farm productivity, they are increasingly feared for their potentially dangerous residues and their effects on ecosystems. The Future Role of Pesticides explores the role of chemical pesticides in the decade ahead and identifies the most promising opportunities for increasing the benefits and reducing the risks of pesticide use. The committee recommends R&D, program, and policy initiatives for federal agriculture authorities and other stakeholders in the public and private sectors. This book presents clear overviews of key factors in chemical pesticide use, including: Advances in genetic engineering not only of pest-resistant crops but also of pests themselves. Problems in pesticide use--concerns about the health of agricultural workers, the ability of pests to develop resistance, issues of public perception, and more. Impending shifts in agriculture--globalization of the economy, biological "invasions" of organisms, rising sensitivity toward cross-border environmental issues, and other trends. With a model and working examples, this book offers guidance on how to assess various pest control strategies available to today's agriculturist.
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The edited book Pesticides - Toxic Aspects contains an overview of attractive researchers of pesticide toxicology that covers the hazardous effects of common chemical pesticide agents employed every day in our agricultural practices. The combination of experimental and theoretical pesticide investigations of current interest will make this book of significance to researchers, scientists, engineers, and graduate students who make use of those different investigations to understand the toxic aspects of pesticides. We hope that this book will continue to meet the expectations and needs of all interested in different aspects of pesticide toxicity.
This book explores the risks and benefits of crops that are genetically modified for pest resistance, the urgency of establishing an appropriate regulatory framework for these products, and the importance of public understanding of the issues. The committee critically reviews federal policies toward transgenic products, the 1986 coordinated framework among the key federal agencies in the field, and rules proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency for regulation of plant pesticides. This book provides detailed analyses of: Mechanisms and results of genetic engineering compared to conventional breeding for pest resistance. Review of scientific issues associated with transgenic pest-protected plants, such as allergenicity, impact on nontarget plants, evolution of the pest species, and other concerns. Overview of regulatory framework and its use of scientific information with suggestions for improvements.
The second edition of Agriculture's Ethical Horizon is a carefully considered application of philosophical concepts, such as utilitarianism and positivism, to the practice of agricultural science. Author Robert Zimdahl argues for an approach to agriculture guided by foundational values, and addresses the questions: What are the goals of agricultural and weed science? What should their goals be? How do and how should the practitioners of agriculture address complex ethical questions? This book engages students, researchers, and professionals across disciplines including horticulture, soil and plant science, entomology, and more, all without requiring a background in philosophy. It examines topics such as scientific truth and myth, moral confidence in agriculture, the relevance of ethics to sustainability, and biotechnology. New to this edition is a chapter examining the raising, housing and slaughter of animals for human food, and a chapter on alternative and organic agricultural systems. Easily understood by non-philosophers Chapter sidebars highlight important concepts and can be used to engage students in further discussion Companion website includes further teaching aids and a discussion board
Sustainable agriculture is a rapidly growing field aiming at producing food and energy in a sustainable way for humans and their children. It is a discipline that addresses current issues: climate change, increasing food and fuel prices, poor-nation starvation, rich-nation obesity, water pollution, soil erosion, fertility loss, pest control and biodiversity depletion. This series gathers review articles that analyze current agricultural issues and knowledge, then proposes alternative solutions.
Genetic, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms of resistance to pesticides. Population biology of pesticide resistance: bridging the gap between theory and practical applications. Detection, monitoring, and risk assessment. Tactics for prevention and management. Implementing management of resistance to pesticides.
Increasing demand on industrial capacity has, as an unintended consequence, produced an accompanying increase in harmful and hazardous wastes. Derived from the second edition of the popular Handbook of Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment, Waste Treatment in the Process Industries outlines the fundamentals and latest developments in waste treatment in various process industries, such as pharmaceuticals, textiles, petroleum, soap, detergent, phosphate, paper, pulp, pesticides, rubber, and power. Comprehensive in scope, it provides information that is directly applicable to daily waste management problems throughout the industry. The book contains in-depth discussions of environmental pollution sources, waste characteristics, control technologies, management strategies, facility innovations, process alternatives, costs, case histories, effluent standards, and future trends for the process industry. It includes extensive bibliographies for each type of industrial process waste treatment or practice, invaluable information to anyone who needs to trace, follow, duplicate, or improve on a specific process waste treatment practice. A quick scan of the chapters and contributors reveals the depth and breadth of the book's coverage. It provides technical and economical information on how to develop the most feasible total environmental control program that can benefit both process industry and local municipalities.
This book, Environmental Health Risk - Hazardous Factors to Living Species, is intended to provide a set of practical discussions and relevant tools for making risky decisions that require actions to reduce environmental health risk against environmental factors that may adversely impact human health or ecological balances. We aimed to compile information from diverse sources into a single volume to give some real examples extending concepts of those hazardous factors to living species that may stimulate new research ideas and trends in the relevant fields.
Concern about health effects from exposure to pesticides in foods is growing as scientists learn more about the toxic properties of pesticides. The Delaney Clause, a provision of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, prohibits tolerances for any pesticide that causes cancer in test animals or in humans if the pesticide concentrates in processed food or feeds. This volume examines the impacts of the Delaney Clause on agricultural innovation and on the public's dietary exposure to potentially carcinogenic pesticide residues. Four regulatory scenarios are described to illustrate the effects of varying approaches to managing oncogenic pesticide residues in food.
Six Chemicals That Changed Agriculture is a scientific look at how the chemicals used in today's food production were developed, evaluated, and came to be in wide-spread use. From fertilizers to pest management, antibiotics to DNA, chemicals have transformed the way our food is grown, protected, and processed. Agriculture is the world's most important environment interaction, the essential human activity, and an increasingly controversial activity because of its use and presumed misuse of chemistry. The major characteristics of US agriculture for at least the last six decades have been rising productivity, declining number of mid-size farms, increasing farm size, an increasing percentage of farm production on fewer, large farms, increasing dependence of chemical technology and more developmental research being done by the agricultural chemical industry rather than by independent land-grant universities. Another equally important feature of modern agriculture is wide-spread suspicion of its technology by the public. The book will recount examples of this suspicion related to specific chemicals and present the essence of the suspicion and its results. Offers an historical analysis of the discovery and development some aspects of the chemistry of modern agriculture Addresses the advantages, disadvantages, desirable and undesirable results of the use of each of the chosen chemicals and compares and contrasts the real and frequently assumed problems of their use Provides valuable insights into the history and application of these focused chemicals, enabling readers to apply the lessons to new agricultural chemical developments