pesticides on farms
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Determines the extent to which gov¿t. programs and reg¿s. protect farm workers from unnecessary occup¿l exposure to pesticides (OEP). Examines what mechanisms exist at the fed. and state levels to determine the nature and extent of illnesses assoc. with OEP on farms. The following questions were used: What monitoring systems (MS) and other data sources provide info. on pesticide-related illnesses (PRI) that occur on farms? What are the strengths and weaknesses of these MS, and how comprehensive is the info. they provide in terms of kinds of health effects, pop¿n. subgroups, pesticides, and geographic coverage? Does the info. provided by these MS provide a basis for making reliable nat. est. of PRI that result from OEP on farms? Tables.
Today the goal of designing highly productive, sustainable agricultural production systems is at the forefront of agricultural research agendas around the world. The key to designing sustainable agricultural production technologies is in understanding their economic, environmental, and human health impacts. This volume presents a methodology designed to quantify such impacts and to represent them as tradeoffs. This tradeoff methodology is proposed as an approach to accomplish two essential elements in achieving agricultural sustainability. First, the tradeoffs method is a key to the design of successful interdisciplinary research projects for assessing sustainability of production systems. Second, the tradeoffs method provides a successful means of communicating research findings to policy makers and the public.
Introduction and overview of conclusions; Pest-related yield losses in rice: reality and perceptions; Crop protection technologies; A profile of pesticide use for rice; Choice of crop protection technologies under risk: an expected utility maximization framework; Pesticide exposure, farmers' health, and choice of pest control technologies; IPM implementation in the Philippines: a policy overview; Regulating pesticide use in Philippine agricultural production: some policy considerations.
Although concerns over the ecological impacts of pesticides gave rise to the environmental movement of the late 1960s and 1970s, since that time, pesticide use and its effects have been largely ignored by the law and by legal scholars. This book addresses this omission by providing a unique and serious treatment of the significance of pesticide issues in environmental law and takes an ecological perspective on the legal issues. Dealing with a wide range of questions relating to pests and pesticides, the book focuses primarily on agricultural pesticide use as the largest contaminator in the US. It also examines the legacy of past pesticide use and analyzes how recent developments in ecological science can inform the law and increase our understanding of ecology. Interdisciplinary in its approach, the book will be of interest to academics, lawyers, scientists and environmental and agricultural professionals.
Although chemical pesticides safeguard crops and improve farm productivity, they are increasingly feared for their potentially dangerous residues and their effects on ecosystems. The Future Role of Pesticides explores the role of chemical pesticides in the decade ahead and identifies the most promising opportunities for increasing the benefits and reducing the risks of pesticide use. The committee recommends R&D, program, and policy initiatives for federal agriculture authorities and other stakeholders in the public and private sectors. This book presents clear overviews of key factors in chemical pesticide use, including: Advances in genetic engineering not only of pest-resistant crops but also of pests themselves. Problems in pesticide use--concerns about the health of agricultural workers, the ability of pests to develop resistance, issues of public perception, and more. Impending shifts in agriculture--globalization of the economy, biological "invasions" of organisms, rising sensitivity toward cross-border environmental issues, and other trends. With a model and working examples, this book offers guidance on how to assess various pest control strategies available to today's agriculturist.
This manual covers information essential for anyone using pesticides on California farms, including growers, managers and employees in an easy-to-use format, with many illustrations.The book uses a farm profile format to review environmental and human safety topics. Covers pesticide labels, worker safety (handlers and fieldworkers), how to mix and apply pesticides, calibration, the hazards of pesticide use including heat related illness, and pesticide emergencies.
The Use and Fate of Pesticides in Vegetable-based Agro-ecosystems in Ghana reviews current knowledge on pesticides use in vegetable farming in Ghana and establishes the fate of pesticides in situ in tropical vegetable-based agro-ecosystems as well as their environmental and public health impacts on selected population groups. A field survey showed that vegetable farmers often spray pesticides on prophylactic basis due to lack of information. Although some farmers may be aware of pesticide hazards, adequate protection is hardly taken to minimize risks. About 70% of exposed farmers had a reduction of 30% or more in whole blood acetylcholinesterase activity. About 95% of the farmers interviewed reported symptoms attributable to pesticide exposure. Water, waterbed sediment, and vegetable crops were checked for residues of the pesticides monitored on the farmers’ fields. Residues detected in water and waterbed sediment indicated that these have come from runoff from vegetable fields and that the measured levels were transient. Pesticide residue levels detected in five vegetable crop types (tomato, cabbage, pepper, onion, and eggplants) were correlated to the minimal risk levels (MRLs) set by the United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Mean intakes of residues by 22- to 75-year old adult farmers were found to be low and did not seem to be associated with health risk. Data on persistent pesticide residues in farmers’ breast milk and blood serum indicated the presence of DDTs, dieldrin, HCB, and HCHs. When daily intakes of DDTs and HCHs to infants through breastfeeding were estimated, some farmers accumulated these compounds in breast milk above the threshold for adverse effects, which raise concerns on children health. Evidence was found for persistence of isomers of endosulfan and its sulfate metabolite in tomato cropped soil and plant tissues. However, the residue concentration in tomato fruits decreased to a level below the Codex MRL given a two-week pre-harvest interval during which no application of the chemical is done. The publication concludes that successful action to reduce the negative impact of pesticides requires sustained, low cost, and well-targeted training interventions. Students and scientists in the fields of environmental chemistry and/or science, farmers, agricultural extension officers and environmental and health regulatory agencies will find this book very useful.
This book brings together over 30 contributors with expertise in a variety of disciplines related to the topic. Although efforts continue toward reduction or elimination of pesticide chemicals in the management of pests in agriculture, public health and the urban arena, chemicals will continue to be one of the main weapons in control of insects, weeds, nematodes, plant diseases, etc. for some time to come. While considerable information is known about the acute toxicity of these compounds, information on the chronic effects from exposure to minute amounts of pesticide residues in food, water, air and soil is often very limited. This book approaches the topic from several different vantage points including pesticide epidemiology, new modes of action to minimize nontarget exposure, bioremediation of contaminated areas, molecular biology of the modes of action and detoxication of pesticides, and the dynamics of pesticide movement in the environment. As world leaders in the manufacture and use of pesticides, countries must cooperate in the search for safer pesticides with minimum chronic effects on humans and the environment. This book helps to remove the barriers of distance and language and should lead to new cooperative research efforts across country lines and discipline lines. Contents: Epidemiology of Pesticides Chronic Effects of Pesticides on Health Safer Insecticides Bioremediation of Pesticide Residues Biochemical and Molecular Biology of Pesticides Pesticide Ecology/Dynamics
The book covers the various aspects of the use of pesticides, their behavior, degradation, and impacts in wetland ricefields, and presents the results of surveys conducted in the Philippines and Thailand. It includes both bibliographic reviews and selected aspects of the experimental results of a research project on pesticide impacts in wetland ricefields. The first phase of the `Pesticide Impact' project was developed in the Philippines from 1989 to 1991. It was a multidisciplinary/collaborative approach involving scientists from IRRI, NRI (England), ORSTOM (France), UPLB (Philippines) who studied the effects of pesticides on the environment and on farmers' health, and the economical aspects of their use.